scuola internazionale di specializzazione con la procedura immaginativa srl
Milano, Via Lanzone 31
La Scuola Internazionale di Specializzazione con la Procedura Immaginativa, con sede a Milano e a Roma, è collegata al Groupe International du Reve-Eveillé en Psychanalyse G.I.R.E.P. di Parigi e alla Società Italiana di Neuroscienze - S.I.N.S.; opera anche in Brasile ed in Svizzera.
Promuove formazione, divulgazione e scambio interdisciplinare in campo medico e psicologico, allargato ad autori, gruppi e realtà che lavorano sulle produzioni immaginative. La ricerca volge il suo interesse verso la correlazione tra meta psicologia dell'immagine, psicoanalisi e neuroscienze.
E' sede del corso di specializzazione quadriennale in psicoterapia (autorizzato dal M.I.U.R. con D.M. 10/10/2008, ai sensi della L.56/89, art.3), di corsi di counseling (accreditati presso la Società Italiana Counseling S.I.Co.), è provider per aggiornamenti ECM presso il Ministero della Salute. Oltre all’attività formativa, la s.i.s.p.i., tramite i suoi professionisti offre servizi alla persona a Roma, Milano e in varie province del Nord Italia. Le prestazioni vengono erogate in regime libero professionale o tramite convenzioni. Per le aree psicopedagogica, psicoterapeutica e consilirare, i professionisti sono docenti o didatti della scuola o psicoterapeuti che effettuano l’aggiornamento continuo e la supervisione dei casi trattati. Per aree diverse sono operative convenzioni con consulenti esterni "d’eccellenza".
Nicole Fabre – Direttore Scientifico. Allieva e continuatrice del pensiero di Robert Desoille, fondatrice e presidente storico del GIREP a Parigi, dove opera come Psicoanalista e Didatta dagli Anni Sessanta. Ha una particolare specializzazione sull’età dello sviluppo ed è nota per le numerose pubblicazioni sul Rêve-Eveillè, che insegna in varie università e scuole di specializzazione.
Alberto Passerini – Fondatore e Presidente. Psichiatra, Psicoterapeuta, Didatta del GIREP di Parigi di cui fa parte, all’interno del gruppo italiano (SIPRED – Società Italiana di Psicoanalisi Rêve-Eveillè di Desoille, Milano) dal 1983; ha fondato la SISPI nel 2007 e l’Istituto di Psicologia Clinica Rocca-Stendoro nel 1991; già docente presso l’Università di Roma Tor Vergata, già docente di Psicologia Clinica e docente di Psicoterapia Psicodinamica presso l’Università degli Studi dell’Insubria, della quale è afferente al Centro di Neuroscienze, incentrando questi incarichi sul Rêve-Eveillé e successive evoluzioni; dagli Anni Ottanta svolge attività clinica e didattica con l’Esperienza Immaginativa; opera a Milano, Roma, Varese.
(formatori sul modello psicodinamico dell’Esperienza Immaginativa, che frequentano l’aggiornamento continuo, la supervisione e sono attivi nella ricerca sviluppata dalle Unità Operative)
(Universitari o Professionisti con più di 5 anni di esperienza):
A Escola Internacional de Especializaçao com o Processo Imaginativo, com sede em Milao e Roma, è ligada ao Groupe International du Reve-Eveillè en Psychanalyse G.I.R.E.P. de Paris e a Sociedade Italiana de Neurosciencia – S.I.N.S; funciona tambèm no Brasil e na Suiça. Promove formaçao, divulgaçao e trocas interdisciplinares no campo mèdico e psicologico, expandindo a autores, grupos e realidades que trabalham com produçoes imaginativas. A pesquisa direciona o seu interesse na correlaçao entre meta psicologia da imagem, psicanalise e neurosciencia. E’ sede do curso de especializaçao quadrienal em psicoterapia (autorizado pelo M.I.U.R. com D.M. 10/10/2008, de acordo com a L.56/89, art.3), de cursos de counseling (acreditado na Sociedade Italiana Counseling S.I.Co.), è fornecedor de atualizaçoes ECM no Ministerio da Saude. Alèm da atividade de formaçao, a S.I.S.P.I, atraves de seus profissionais oferece serviços as pessoas em Roma e no Nort da Italia. As prestaçoes de serviços sao com profissionais autonomos ou atraves convençoes. Para as areas psicopedagogicas, psicoterapeuticas e consiliares, os profissionais sao professores ou didatas da escola ou psicoterapeutas sempre atualizados e supervisionados nos casos em tratamento. Nas diversas areas sao realizadas conveçoes com renomados profissionais esternos. (traduzione a cura di Mirelle Biaggi-Alvarenga)
Międzynarodowa Szkoła Specjalizacyjna z Procedurą Wyobrażeniową, z siedzibą w Mediolanie i w Rzymie, związana jest z Groupe International du Reve-Eveillé en Psychanalyse G.I.R.E.P. w Paryżu i z Società Italiana di Neuroscienze - S.I.N.S (włoskie stowarzyszenie neuronauk); działa także w Brazylii i w Szwajcarii. Promuje szkolenie, rozpowszechnianie i wymianę interdyscyplinarną w obszarze medycznym i psychologicznym, wzbogaconą przez pracę licznych autorów, grup i instytucji, zajmujących się produkcją wyobrażeniową. Zainteresowanie badawcze Szkoły zwraca się w kierunku związku pomiędzy metapsychologią obrazu, psychoanalizą i neuronaukami. Jest ona również siedzibą czteroletniej specjalizacji z psychoterapii (uznawanej przez MIUR- [Włoskie Ministerstwo Szkolnictwa Wyższego] na mocy prawa L.56/86, art.3), kursów counselingu (akredytowanych przez Włoskie Towarzystwo Counselingu S.I.Co.), organizatorem kursów dokształcających ECM (kształcenie ustawiczne w zakresie medycyny) przy Ministerstwie Zdrowia. Oprócz działalności formacyjnej, poprzez pracę własnych fachowców, oferuje usługi na rzecz zdrowia osoby w Rzymie, Mediolanie i w wielu prowincjach północnych Włoch. Usługi te wykonywane są na zasadzie świadczeń prywatnych, jak również refundowanych. Nasi fachowcy w dziedzinie psychopedagogiki, psychoterapii i poradnictwa są jednocześnie wykładowcami Szkoły i psychoterapeutami, którzy uczestniczą w kursach ustawicznego dokształcania zawodowego, i superwizji przypadków klinicznych, z którymi mają do czynienia. Szkoła dysponuje, na mocy podpisanych umów, również wsparciem nadzwyczajnych konsultantów zewnętrznych w rozmaitych dziedzinach.
Przemówienie Alberto Passerini (SISPI- Włochy) z udziałem Alain Feld (Belgia), Nicole Liljefors (Szwecja), Tom Holman (USA); Moderatorzy: Michèle Taillandier, Lyliane Nemet-Prier:
W związku z powyższym pojawiły się liczne pytania dotyczące zastosowania Doświadczenia Wyobrażeniowego w przygotowaniu do operacji chirurgicznych, a także nowej teorii Bodźca Percepcyjnego (Obrazu początkowego), opartej na neurofizjologicznym rozdzieleniu wyobraźni od percepcji.
Passerini, A. (2009), Immaginario: cura e creativitá. L’esperienza immaginativa dal neurone alla psicoterapia, Roma.
Foreword by Alberto Passerini and Flavia Valtorta from the book:
Immaginario: Cura e Creativita’ – L’Esperienza Immaginativa dal neurone alla psicoterapia
The imaginary – Cure and Creativity – The Imaginative Experience from the neuron to psychotherapy
This book aims to highlight the clinical experience of over twenty years using the waking dream psychotherapeutic methods of Reve Eveille and its corollary, the method of Procedura Immaginativa (Imaginative Procedure), which our group has adopted under the name of Esperienza Immaginativa (Imaginative Experience). This new therapeutic model has been developed in the light of neuro-scientific developments on the study of the imagination and the psychotherapeutic relationship itself. It is very encouraging to read about the studies on mental imagery using neuro-imaging techniques (Positron Emission Tomography), functional magnetic resonace,transcranial magnetic stimulation...) which have given us extraordinary results that have allowed us to clarify better what had been intuited before about the inner workings of the mind. Furthermore, the studies on the structures and cerebral functions of the brain implicated in imagination are helping us understand and to develop further our therapeutic model of working with the imagination, which is the royal road to the unconscious.
The theoretical framework that encompasses this work, is the Waking Dream (Reve Eveille) of Robert Desoille (1890-1966) that has been further developed after his death up to this day by G.I.R.E.P (International Group of Psychoanalytic Waking Dream). Our ideas using the Esperienza Immaginativa have been appreciated within G.I.R.E.P and left an influence on the French group itself. Our recent opening of S.I.S.P.I, an Italian Psychotherapeutic Training school using the waking dream method, which is a member of G.I.R.E.P also aims to develop the clinical applications of the method and to make the therapeutic method more known in the international scene. The theoretical model of the latter school has a solid psychodynamic basis and understands the production of images according to the contemporary principles of depth psychology (Marhaba 2007) which is characterised by an idiographic research approach (Carta, 2004).
The name of Procedura Immaginativa has been introduced in Italy in the early 1990s, to indicate the imaginative material produced during the oneiric part of the analytic session dedicated specifically to having a waking dream (Rocca & Stendora, edit. by Passerini, 1991). At the time, the term Reve Eveille (Waking Dream) was used interchangeably with Procedura Immaginativa and many times one term appeared next to the other in brackets. However, after the mid-1990s (Bondi, Passerini, 1997) the situation changed since for the first time, the term Procedura Immaginativa started to refer to a specific theoretical and methodological model of psychotherapy. This model gathered a series of operational terms and definitions from Desoille’s Waking dream method, that had been translated and further developed by the Italian group within G.I.R.E.P starting from the 1980s (Marafante, Frei, 1983), (Rocca, Passerini, Giampier, 1986), Rocca, Stendoro, Passerini, 1988). Then, from the mid-1990s the method of Procedura Immaginativa developed its own specific identity, characterised by an internal coherent methodology albeit an off-spring of the original Reve Eveille method. Within S.I.S.P.I. the term Esperienza Immaginativa is used.
Throughout the years, several different groups all members of G.I.R.E.P, originating from different countries have shaped Reve Eveille into their own particular style although all groups share a common Desoillian heritage. This issue of theoretical diversity have also been raised in France itself after the death of Desoille himself. There were some members who would have liked Desoille’s method to be fully integrated as part of psychoanalysis while another branch insisted of keeping their individuality offered by the waking dream itself which nonetheless could benefit psychoanalytic theory. The latter is the philosophy of the current group within G.I.R.E.P. The present book falls part of this tradition.
We have tried to formulate a model based on recent research neuro-biolgical developments which can help us understand better the dynamics involved in the clinical practice of the Esperienza Immaginativa. However, one may pose the question of how much relevant is the inclusion of neurobiology in the theory and practisce of psychodynamic psychotherapy? The neuro-biologist Eric Kandel (a psychiatrist with a psychoanalytic background and winner of Nobel Price for Medicine in 2000 for his research work on memory) emphasized the fact that the future of psychoanalysis depends on the possibility of building a dialogue with neuro-biology and cognitive sciences, in order to build a new and valid conceptual working model (Kandel 1999). The affinity between the two approaches is based on the fact that they both agree that the development of the mind is experience related.
In the scientific field it is understood that there is a certain concordance in the results of both molecular and cellular analysis. The mirror neuron studies have shed important light on the capacity of imagination itself as well as on the circularity involved in the giving of the imaginative stimulus and in receiving it, which is crucial in the waking dream methods (Procedura Immaginativa/Reve Eveille). The theory of the selection of neuron groups, formulated by Gerald Edelman, has also been analysed in the context of the building of neuron pathways and circuits and how this can lead to behavioural change in psychotherapy (Edelman, Tononi, 2000).
This book gives particular attention to emotions and to their function of linking the mind with the body as proven by a series of experimental research results. It is know that the quality of the attachment process in humans affects the experience and the regulation of emotions which in turn leaves an impact on the formation and stability of neural connections in the brain and ultimately on the construction and plasticity of the brain itself. Similarly, the steady development of a new emotional relationship in adult life can considerably change the processing of emotions in the brain, eventually leading to a new adjustment. This concept can be translated to the analytic relationship, and in particular to the practice of psychotherapy with the Esperienza Immaginativa, which in turn can help us re-read the developments in our clinical cases. These neuro-scientific findings, confirm what has already been suggested in psychoanalysis, namely the emotional relationship has a central role, both in the representation and in the processing of experience itself. One can thus conclude, the conscious and unconscious experiences are not processed independently from how the brain is structured.
The attempt to understand the neural correlates of the clinical experience is certainly worth investing in. However, there is a risk of transplanting the neurobiolgical explanations and terminology directly and superficially on the existing clinical terminology, thus repeating what is already known. Our challenge has been to try and widen our knowledge of how our brain works and to try and understand the implication of the mechanisms behind our cerebral functioning in our clinical practice. Consequently, we tried to formulate hypotheses which could be tested empirically and in line with our theoretical methodology.
Translated by Mr. Laner Cassar
Robert Desoille and Rêve Eveillé Dirigé (RED)– Waking Dream Method
Robert Desoille (May 29, 1890 - October 10, 1966) was a French psychotherapist who developed a therapeutic method based on waking dreams known as Directed Waking Dream method (rêve eveillé dirigé, or RED). The French psychoanalyst, Jacques Chazaud, in a review of Desoille’s work Entretiens sur le rêve éveillé dirigé en psychothérapie (1973), claimed ‘le rêve-éveillé de Desoille est la seule trouvaille qui compte depuis Freud/ the waking dream of Desoille is the only worthy discovery after Freud (my translation).’ However, in comparison to Freud and Jung, Desoille is a less known figure in psychology, whose contributions of the directed waking-dream approach deserve much more attention.
Desoille was born in Besançon into a family of military officers and was trained as an engineer. While his profession was that of an engineer his vocation was definitely a therapeutic one. After his 1923 meeting with the occultist Colonel Eugène Caslant, who introduced him to an experimental mental imaging technique, he developed his method of the directed waking dream. Desoille’s ideas about his rêve-éveillé-dirigé method (RED) can be found in five of his books which he published between 1938 and 1961 and three others who were published post-humously. His ideas can also be found in his many articles mainly published in Action et Pensée starting as early as 1923, and several lectures in conferences which he gave during his life both in France and abroad.
Desoille invented a method which was built on the main previous therapeutic methods known in France of the twentieth century, namely hypnosis and psychoanalysis. He wanted a method in which the patient remembered what happened to him during the session unlike hypnosis and in which the patient could co-operate with the therapist rather than succumb to the therapist’s power.
At the theoretical level, Desoille was influenced first by Sigmund Freud, then by Carl Gustav Jung and finally, following his membership of the French Communist Party, he modelled his theory on Pavlovian behaviouristic principles. Desoille's first writings in the 1920s were published with the help of the Genevan analyst Charles Baudouin. Desoille built his theories on the works of Freud, Pierre Janet, and Roland Dalbiez. He studied the relationship between symbolism, emotions, and memory in his early works, underscoring the applicability of the directed waking dream method in exploring sublimation. In the 1940s, Desoille was influenced by Jung's collective unconscious and presented his own conception of the mind based on Freud's three instances. Desoille believed that the transference described by Freud, could be expressed and resolved in the directed waking dream itself. Finally, in the 1950s and 1960s, in line with his political affiliations, Desoille embraced a Pavlovian conception of neurosis, based on reflexes, in what was termed a "rational psychotherapy". Desoille died at age 76 in Paris.
Desoille argued that the best way to help the patient have a waking-dream was to make the patient lie down on a couch or an arm-chair with his eyes-closed and with a dim lit environment (1938, p.46), thus facilitating regression. Desoille defined the waking dream as ‘an intermediary stage between the waking state and the dreaming state, between the physiological and the psychical’ (1961). He compared this state to that induced by Freud in his early ‘pressure technique’ (SE, p.109-11). After a detailed anamnesis covering all kinds of habits of daily life, Desoille would help the patient to relax.
Desoille would give an ‘image de depart/ initial stimulus’ to the patient lying relaxed on a couch and the patient would let his imagination work on the stimulus and create an inner ‘oneiric’ drama. The six stimuli were the theme of a sword for a men and a vase for a woman (its purpose to understand one’s own sexuality); the theme of a descent to the bottom of the sea (its purpose was to confront one’s suppressed characteristics); theme of a witch or a sorcerer (its purpose was of coming to terms with the parent of the opposite sex and the parent of one’s own sex; theme of descending in a cave to find a dragon (its purpose was to come to terms with authority and society’s constraints); theme of sleeping beauty or prince charming (its purpose was of coming to terms with the Oedipal situation, (Desoille, 1966). Desoille would not necessarily follow these imaginative stimuli in order and at times he would repeat them and he would as well use other spontaneous images arising during therapy sessions.
The patient had to experience with all the senses his or her imaginative journey and not be a passive viewer of the imaginative landscape. Desoille described three different types and levels of images that were met during a directed waking dream namely images from the patient’s life, similar to those met in dreams; fabulous images associated with folklore and myths and finally mystical images.
The therapist placed behind the subject, would sometimes intervene to either specify part of imaginary space or to encourage the patient to explore the heights or the depths of his imaginary space which he or she would be immersed in. Desoille equated movement with la vie (life) and la liberté (liberty). The primary axis of all movement was vertical and hence descending and ascending were the most important motions. For Desoille, movement in space spelled metamorphosis. Particularly for Desoille, the ascensional movement was very crucial and its frequency and quality manifested the degree to which the patient had been freed from his or her neurotic problem that had brought him to therapy.
In fact, Desoille did not discover the imagination but the ‘verb’ of imagination, i.e., the fact that when one moved in an imaginative space one would simultaneously experience emotional and physiological changes in oneself. For Desoille, the waking dream expressed an ‘intimate language’, as described by the French philosopher Georges Politzer, about the patient’s affective interior life including his emotional deficits, psychic conflicts and desires. Desoille believed that all feelings were susceptible towards an evolution which he chose to describe in Bergsonian terms as an évolution créatrice. Desoille described the mechanism of regulation and evolution as la function de sublimation giving it a wider meaning than the reductive one of Freud.
In another phase of the therapeutic work, the subject would write a written report which will be used in a face-to-face session in order to explore the meaning of the scenario. in the next session, the patient and the therapist would look again at the waking-dream content, and compare it to his daily life difficulties. During this part of the session, the patient and therapist would sit face to face (vis-a–vis). Desoille would not interpret the content of the waking dream as psychoanalysts would do, but would ask the patient to share what he thought about the waking dream’s drama. Desoille summed up his ideas about interpretation when he said that interpretation in RED is ‘tojours utile, parfois necessaire, jamais indispensable/ always useful, sometimes necessary but never indispensable’. He would also ask the patient about his dreams in order to monitor the therapeutic development of the sessions.
Desoille’s work was carried forward by some of his disciples since in his life time he did not form any school related to his therapeutic method. After Desoille died, his disciples formed an international group of ‘waking dream’ of Desoille - (Groupe International du Rêve-Eveillé Dirigé de Desoille – G.I.R.E.D.D) in Paris in 1966. After some time the group’s name was changed to G.I.R.E.D removing the word dirigé i.e the directivity component whilst emphasizing spatial movement. However, the group was further divided between those who were in favour of a straightforward entry into psychoanalysis (C.I.P.A.R.E); those who wanted to keep the originality of the Desoillian waking dream but use a psychoanalytic framework to understand it (G.I.R.E.P – founded in 1987) and other few ‘Desoillians’ who believed more in the power of the waking-dream itself and which later preferred to identify with Transpersonal and Humanistic schools of thought. G.I.R.E.P is still active in Paris and have several international schools and members affiliated with it. Desoille’s method has been colonised by other psychotherapy approaches with little or no recognition of Desoille’s original contribution to imaginative psychotherapy. Authors that cite Desoille's work include Charles Baudouin, Gaston Bachelard, Claude Levi-Struass, Juliette Favez-Boutonier, Françoise Dolto, Daniel Lagache and Frantz Fanon.
Mr. Laner Cassar
Clinical Psychologist & Psychotherapist, Malta